Polymorphisms in plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter and multidrug resistance 1 genes: Parasite risk factors that affect treatment outcomes for P. falciparum malaria after artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine

by Venkatesan M, Gadalla NB, Stepniewska K, Dahal P, Nsanzabana C, Moriera C, Price RN, Mårtensson A, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G, Sutherland CJ, Guérin P, Davis TME, Ménard D, Adam I, Ademowo G, Arze C, Baliraine FN, Berens-Riha N, Björkman A, Borrmann S, Checchi F, Desai M, Dhorda M, Djimdé AA, El-Sayed BB, Eshetu T, Eyase F, Falade C, Faucher JF, Fröberg G, Grivoyannis A, Hamour S, Houzé S, Johnson J, Kamugisha E, Kariuki S, Kiechel JR, Kironde F, Kofoed PE, LeBras J, Malmberg M, Mwai L, Ngasala B, Nosten F, Nsobya SL, Nzila A, Oguike M, Dahlström Otienoburu S, Ogutu B, Ouédraogo JB, Piola P, Rombo L, Schramm B, Somé AF, Thwing J, Ursing J, Wong RPM, Zeynudin A, Zongo I, Plowe CV, Hopkins Sibley C. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2014, doi:10.4269/ajtmh.14-0031.

Summary: Adequate clinical and parasitologic cure by artemisinin combination therapies relies on the artemisinin component and the partner drug.  Some resistance genes have been found to be associated with decreased sensitivity to amodiaquine and lumefantrine, but effects on therapeutic responses to artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) have not been clearly defined. Individual patient data from 31 clinical trials were harmonized and pooled by using standardized methods from the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network. Monitoring selection and responding to emerging signs of drug resistance are critical tools for preserving efficacy of artemisinin combination therapies; determination of the prevalence of at least pfcrt K76T and pfmdr1 N86Y should now be routine.

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