by González U, Pinart M, Sinclair D, Firooz A, Enk C, Vélez ID, Esterhuizen TM, Tristan M, Alvar J. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Aug 5;8:CD008736.
Summary: Leishmaniasis is caused by the Leishmania parasite, and transmitted by infected phlebotomine sandflies. Of the two distinct clinical syndromes, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) affects the skin and mucous membranes, and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) affects internal organs. Approaches to prevent transmission include vector control by reducing human contact with infected sandflies, and reservoir control, by reducing the number of infected animals. This review summarises trials evaluating different measures to prevent leishmaniasis, and included 14 randomized control trials up to January 2015. The review concluded that using insecticides to reduce phlebotomine sandfly numbers may be effective at reducing the incidence of CL, but there is insufficient evidence from trials to know whether it is better to spray the internal walls of houses or to treat bednets, curtains, bedsheets or clothing.